Tuesday, 29 September 2015

Time Colour Interaction Chart


For those of us conscious about colour and their shades they wear,this could be some good news to you. This is an excerpt of the application of the Perpetual Calendar..The Time Colou Interaction Chart is a production of time colour interaction model

Monday, 28 September 2015

The Seven Motions of the Earth

By
Vincent Oduor Odhiambo (MEd, Nairobi)
Introduction
Here is the examination of the apparent daily motion of the sky that results from the rotation of the earth, When the Earth turns, and the sky appear to revolve around the earth. It is noticed that the sky appears to revolve in the clockwise direction or "left-handed" since it appears to move in the opposite direction of the earth's actual rotation
Evolution of the Knowledge of the Motions of the Earth
To understand the motions, it is important to begin by throwing a little history of the evolution of the knowledge of the moving Earth or heavenly bodies.
It is noted that among the ancient Greeks, several of the Pythagorean school believed in the rotation of the earth rather than the apparent diurnal rotation of the heavens. Perhaps the first was Philolaus (470-385 BCE), though his system was complicated, including a counter-earth rotating daily about a central fire (Burch, George Bosworth 1954)
A more conventional picture was that supported by Hicetas, Heraclides and Ecphantus in the fourth century BCE who assumed that the earth rotated but did not suggest that the earth revolved about the sun. In the third century BCE, Aristarchus of Samos suggested the sun's central place.
However, Aristotle in the fourth century criticized the ideas of Philolaus as being based on theory rather than observation. He established the idea of a sphere of fixed stars that rotated about the earth(Aristotle. Of the Heavens.Book II,Ch 13.1.).This was accepted by most of those who came after, in particular Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century CE), who thought the earth would be devastated by gales if it rotated (Ptolemy. Almagest Book I, Chapter 8.).
In 499 CE, the Indian astronomer Aryabhata wrote that the spherical earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the Earth. He provided the following analogy: "Just as a man in a boat going in one direction sees the stationary things on the bank as moving in the opposite direction, in the same way to a man at Lanka the fixed stars appear to be going westward.
In the 10th century,some Muslim astronomers accepted that the Earth rotates around its axis(Alessandro Bausani (1973)."Cosmology and Religion in Islam".Scientia/Rivista di Scienza) According to al-Biruni, Abu Sa'id al-Sijzi (d.circa 1020) invented an astrolabe called al-zūraqī based on the idea believed by some of his contemporaries "that the motion we see is due to the Earth's movement and not to that of the sky.”(Young, M. J. L., ed. 2006 p. 413,Nasr, Seyyed Hossein 1993.   p. 135)
The prevalence of this view is further confirmed by a reference from the 13th century which states. According to the geometers [or engineers] (muhandisīn), the earth is in constant circular motion, and what appears to be the motion of the heavens is actually due to the motion of the earth and not the stars.” (Young, M. J. L., ed.,2006 p. 413.).Treatises were written to discuss its possibility, either as refutations or expressing doubts about Ptolemy's arguments against it (Ragep, Sally P. (2007).At the Maragha and Samarkand observatories, the Earth's rotation was discussed by Tusi (b. 1201) and Qushji (b. 1403); the arguments and evidence they used resemble those used by Copernicus to support the Earth's motion.( Ragep, F. Jamil, 2001a, "Tusi and Copernicus:The Earth's Motion in Context", Science in Context 
In medieval Europe, Thomas Aquinas accepted Aristotle's view(Aquinas, Thomas. Commentaria in libros Aristotelis De caelo et Mundo. Lib II, cap XIV.trans in Grant, Edward, ed. (1974). A Source Book in Medieval Science. Harvard University Press. pages 496-500) and so, reluctantly, did John Buridan(Buridan, John (1942). Quaestiones super libris quattuo De Caelo et mundo. pp. 226–232. in Grant 1974, pp. 500–503) and Nicole Oresme(Oresme, Nicole. Le livre du ciel et du monde. pp. 519–539. in Grant 1974, pp. 503–510) in the fourteenth century.
Not until Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543 adopted a heliocentric world system did the earth's rotation begin to be established. Copernicus pointed out that if the movement of the earth is violent, then the movement of the stars must be very much more so. He acknowledged the contribution of the Pythagoreans and pointed to examples of relative motion. For Copernicus this was the first step in establishing the simpler pattern of planets circling a central sun(Copernicus, Nicolas. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Book I, Chap 5-8.)
The Origin of Heliocentrism
Literature has it that in the 1500's Copernicus published a radical theory of the solar system in which he proposed that the planets revolve about the sun.  His book "on the revolutions of the planets" changed the view about the universe. 
However, there is evidence indicating that Copernicus was not, the first to propose some form of heliocentric system (Linton, 2004, p39). He asserts that a Greek mathematician and astronomer, Aristarchus of Samos, had already done so as early as the third century BCE. There is little evidence that he ever developed his ideas beyond a very basic outline as explained by Dreyer, 1953, pp135–48).
Predecessors of the Copernican system
Dreyer (1953), pp. 40–52); Linton (2004, p. 20). quote how, Philolaus (c. 480–385 BCE) described an astronomical system in which a Central Fire (different from the Sun) occupied the centre of the universe, and a counter-Earth, the Earth, Moon, the Sun itself, planets, and stars all revolved around it, in that order outward from the centre.
Consequently, Dreyer (1953, pp.123–135;Linton 2004,p24) show that as early as the ancient time the motion of the Earth was in conception. It shows that Heraclides.Ponticus (387–312 BCE) had proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis.Though this talks of rotation of the Earth on its own axis, it does not say in which direction and in what axis.This is a missing link in our current knowledge.
In a separate study, Dreyer (1953, pp.135–48) and Heath (1913, pp.301–8) explains that Aristarchus of Samos (310 BCE – c. 230 BCE) had  identified the "central fire" with the Sun, around which he had the Earth orbiting. showing that there was an axis of rotation.
Some technical details of Copernicus's system particularly his use of the Tusi couple and his models for the motions of Mercury and the Moon (Linton 2004, pp.124,137–38). closely resembled those developed earlier by the Islamic astronomers Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī and Ibn al-Shāṭir,both of whom retained a geocentric model.
The prevailing theory in Europe during Copernicus' lifetime was the one that Ptolemy published in his Almagest circa 150 C which asserted that the Earth was the stationary centre of the universe.
According to this theory, stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated rapidly, approximately daily, while each of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon were embedded in their own, smaller spheres. Earth rotating rapidly is equivalent to the vibration and sliding motions that were latently evident at the ancient literature. Ptolemy's system employed also used devices, including epicycles, deferents and equants, to account for observations that the paths of these bodies differed from simple, circular orbits centered on the Earth.
Though he had formulated the theory several decades earlier, Copernicus' major theory was published in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), in the year of his death, 1543,
The Heliocentric Hypothesis
Some time before 1514 Copernicus made available to friends his "Commentariolus"(Little Commentary"), in a forty-page manuscript describing where he presented his ideas about.
The Heliocentric Hypothesis.
Evidence from a reference to the "Commentariolus" contained in a library catalogue, dated 1 May 1514, of a 16th-century historian by Matthew of Miechów, which indicate  that  it must have begun circulating before that date as reported by Koyré, 1973, p.85 and Gingerich, 2004, p.32.
Thoren (1990, p.99) gives the length of the manuscript as 40 pages. which contained seven basic assumptions underlying The Heliocentric Hypothesis as outlined by Goddu (2010 pp 245–6}}There after he continued gathering data for a more detailed work.
It is shown by Jerzy  & Leszek (1969), that by about 1532 Copernicus had already completed his work on the manuscript of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium; but despite being urged by his closest friends, he resisted openly the publication of  his views, not wishing—as he confessed—to risk the scorn "to which he would expose himself on account of the novelty and incomprehensibility of his theses."
Copernicus' "Commentariolus" summarized his Heliocentric Theory. It listed the "assumptions" as quoted by Rosen (2004, pp. 58–59).upon which the theory was based as follows:
  1. There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.
  2. The centre of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere
  3. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
  4. The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament (outermost celestial sphere containing the stars) is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.
  5. Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth's motion. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.
  6. What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet. The earth has, then, more than one motion.
  7. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's. The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens."
Motion of the Earth
Modern literature exist in some of astronomical writings done earlier intimating that Earth is in constant motion. Scholarly work exist on the this and notably motion of the Earth as recorded by Kurtus R.(2010). He underscores that one of the important characteristics of the Earth is its movement. Seen through the Sun move through the sky is a result of the fact that the Earth rotates on its axis. What is not clear is what causes this and in what aspect. As with all planets in the Solar System, the Earth vibrates,slides,spins (orbits),revolves,spins, cyculates and generates or moves around the Solar Galaxy. 
The vibration of the Earth is a self directed activity due immence forces coalescing within it due different states of matter coexisting together.It is therefore a static motion. As it does so, it slides or kicks about or slides continously resulting into a spin or what is perceived as a rotation. These takes place on the Earths own axis.Revolution takes place round the Sun.As the Earth revolves round the Sun, it makes a spiral motion and completes one spirulation in 140 years (or revolutions).This then leads to cyculation or acticive cucles completed in 50 cycles which makes a complete generation of 7000years. The revolution, spirulation, cyculation and generation are motions round the Solar Galaxy or Milky Way. 
There are three categories of the motions of the Earth. These are perceived motions, revealed motions and speculative motions.The vibration, sliding  motions are what Timology concepts refers to as perceived motions of the Earth while spinning and revolution are referred to as revealed motions of the Earth. The spirulation, cyculation and generations are called speculative motions. These are the motions of the Earth underlying the production of The Geoclock, The Perpetual Calendar and The Time Colour Interaction Chart which are based on the principles cycles of continuity of the Universe. 
It is noted that the Earth's axis is slightly tilted with respect to its orbit around the Sun, resulting in the change of seasons. The Earth also follows the Sun in its motion through space. The Earth is a sphere that rotates, on its axis, passing through the North and South Poles.The rotation is in a counterclockwise direction, looking down at the North Pole.
Kurtus R (2010) states that the time it takes for the Earth to make a complete rotation is approximately 24 hours (exactly 23.934 hours).The rotation results in daytime when an area is facing the Sun and night-time when an area is facing away from the Sun
Earth rotates on its axis
Since we are on Earth,we do not sense its motions (rotation and others),but experience it by observing the relative motion of the Sun. It is similar to what you experience when you are sitting in a moving automobile and see the surroundings move by in the opposite direction.
The Earth revolves around the Sun, in a counterclockwise direction, once every 365.25 days. Its velocity in space in its orbit is about 18.5 miles per second (Kurtus R.,2010))
The shape of the orbit is a slight ellipse. Seldom—if ever—is an astronomical orbit a true circle.
Earth rotates in an elliptical orbit around the Sun.
Other motions of the Earth
While it is imperative that awareness has been created as to the existent of other motions of the Earth, there is no concurrent similarities to the claims. Kurtus R.(2010) appreciates that besides the revealed motions of the Earth of spinning on its axis and revolving around the Sun, the Earth also follows the Sun's apparent movement through the Milky Way galaxy-the essence of the speculative motions of the Earth being spirulation, cyculation and generation all which takes place in the outer space of the galaxy.The Sun and its planets are moving toward the star Vega at a velocity of about 12 miles per second.-perhaps through the spirulation of the Earth. The Sun and Vega are rotating about the centre of the Milky Way at about 150 miles per second-the cyculation movement responsible for the active cycle
Admittedly,Kurtus R.(2010) observes that the Milky Way, in turn, is moving through space- this is in agreement with Timology Concepts belief with reference to the third category of the Earth-the Speculative Motions of the Earth in the outer space. otherwise this is the generative movement exhibited is normally completed in 7000 years, as part of the apparent expansion of the Universe-the Time Divergent Zone(TDZ)  Its estimate velocity is thousands of miles per second depending on which galaxy you compare it.
Since the distances are so great, we will never notice these motions with respect to the other stars and galaxies in the immense Universe See the continuity face depicted by a period of 7000 years.
Assumption underlying the Seven Motions of the Earth

  1. The Earth vibrates, slides, spins, revolves, spirulates, cyculates and generates                
  2. There are perceived motions (vibration and sliding) revealed motions (rotation of 24 hours & revolution of 365¼ days). and speculative motions (spirulation of 140 years, cyculation of 50 active cycles and generation of 7000 years)                                                              
  3. The Earth moves in a west to east direction                                                                            
  4. All other heavenly bodies move round the sun at different speeds                                
  5. There is a point in time when all the planets are aligned in along a common ring after a generation of 7000 periods (years)                                                                               
  6. There is an attractive force holding all the planets to the common ring                            
  7. Tthere are natural principles and cycles of continuity underlying the motions of the Earth
1st Assumption
The Earth vibrates, slides, spins, revolves, spirulates, cyculates and generates                
2nd Assumption
There are perceived motions (vibration and sliding) revealed motions (rotation of 24 hours & revolution of 365¼ days). and speculative motions (spirulation of 140 years, cyculation of 50 active cycles and generation of 7000 years)                                
3rd Assumption
The Earth moves in a west to east direction. The Earth's rotation is the rotation of the planet  Earth around  its  own  axis. The Earth rotates from the west towards east. As viewed from North Star or polestar Polaris, the Earth turns counter-clockwise.
The Earth rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars.  Earth's rotation is slowing slightly with time; thus, a day was shorter in the past. This is due to the tidal effects the Moonhas on Earth's rotation. Atomic clocks show that a modern-day is longer by about 1.7 milliseconds than a century ago.( Dennis D. McCarthy; Kenneth P. Seidelmann ( 2009 232.slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds.
4th Assumption
All other heavenly bodies move round the sun at different speeds 
  
5th Assumption
There is a point in time when all the planets are aligned in along a common ring after a generation of 7000 periods (years)     
6th Assumption
There is an attractive force holding all the planets to the common ring                    
7Th  Assumption
Tthere are natural principles and cycles of continuity underlying the motions of the Earth This is illustrated below. Please note that the dashed lines are on the back of the three dimensional sphere.

Depicting a useful concepts - equatorial coordinates, used to make a record of the position of an object on the sky independent of the position of the observer
      
Equatorial Coordinates are the hidden useful natural principles and cycles
Maps of the Earth are normally made from lists of the latitude and longitude of cities and other features .These latitudes are portrayed as continuity cycles displayed in the continuity face  in the periodicity.  Similarly, we make maps of the sky from a list of the coordinates of the stars and other objects.  The coordinates used for this purpose are called "equatorial co -ordinates.and are equivalent of the continuity cycles. These follows the advantage that the stars' positions are nearly fixed with respect to a plane drawn through the earth's equator as the earth's axis points at the same part of the sky, the North Star Polaris, all year long.  Just as altitude is measured from the horizon and latitude is measured from Earth's equator, we measure declination from the "celestial equator" defined this way.
Latitude is measured from the Earth's equator, declination is measured North (+) and South (-) from the celestial equator.
Just as a longitude is measured from the Greenwich meridian, right ascension is measured from the Vernal Equinox.  This being  the point in the sky where the sun crosses the Celestial Equator going north, we call the moment in time this happens, the Vernal Equinox. Also, as longitude is related to time zones, right ascension is related to sidereal time.  For convenience, right ascension is computed in hours, minutes and seconds instead of degrees.

Leap years
Since a year has been designated as 365 days, a day is added every 4 years to even things out. That year is called a "Leap Year" and occurs on years divisible by 4, such as 2004. The extra day in a leap year is added in February.
Actually, the period is slightly less than 365.25 days. Thus a leap year is any year divisible by 4, except for years that are both divisible by 100 and not divisible by 400. Therefore, the year 2000 was a leap year, but the years 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not. That is complicated, but then again, who wants things easy?
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